Within the northern California coast, nature has created her personal forest of bonsai bushes. As an alternative of pots, she used iron cemented hardpan for containers. As an alternative of scissors for pruning, she stunted the bushes with a extremely acid, infertile soil and a layer of hardpan that holds an excessive amount of water within the winter. Her instruments have been ocean waves, heavy rainfall, and uplifting attributable to the grinding collectively of continental plates.The story of the pygmy forest is a component of a bigger story of an ecological staircase. It is a story finest advised on the Jug Deal with State Reserve, 2 miles south of Fort Bragg on State Route 1 in Mendocino County. Right here a 2-1/2 mile nature path leads guests on a self-guided tour up nature’s terraces from the seashore.From the headlands of the primary terrace, you’ll be able to gaze down upon the ocean because it deposits sand and gravel on a future terrace. The earth has been steadily uplifting this coast. “What’s so rare is that the land was uplifted flat, so you have soils that are a million years old,” says Teresa Sholars, Professor on the Faculty of the Redwoods in Fort Bragg. Throughout this time, sea stage has lowered and risen with advances and retreats of continental glaciers. As the ocean lowers, it drops sediments on a stage seaside. Because it rises, the ocean kilos away on the now-higher seaside that may have fashioned sea cliffs. Every of the 5 terraces alongside Jug Deal with Creek is about 100 toes greater and 100,000 to 200,000 years older than the one under it.
On the bottom terrace, grasses and wildflowers like California poppy and coast lupine have enriched the previous seaside sediments. This coastal prairie is maintained by salt spray from the ocean that retains bushes at bay.By the second terrace, the soils have nurtured coniferous forests. Then a leaching course of known as podzolization, widespread to coniferous rain forests, depletes the soil.Rainwater draining slowly on the flat terraces picks up acids from falling needles and carries iron and alkaline minerals down by means of the soil, forming a hardpan.”The acid soil and the hardpan are really creating the pygmy forest,” says Sholars. In reality, this soil is sort of as acid is vinegar – essentially the most acidic soil on the planet.By the third terrace, after 300,000 to 600,000 years of leaching, the distinction is startling. As you stroll by means of a luxuriant forest of towering redwoods and Douglas Firs, you may see an unimaginable shrinking act by the bushes round you; you’ve got lastly arrived on the pygmy forest.Right here the bottom is an ill-clad dingy white, with little greater than lichens and sparse leaf litter for clothes. Not often discovered wild exterior the pygmy forest, pygmy cypresses and Bolander pines, together with the widespread bishop pine, eke out their livings on this depleted soil. The place the hardpan is lower than a foot deep, a 2-foot excessive, half-inch diameter cypress could also be a mature 80 to 100 years previous. Different vegetation within the pygmy forest consists principally of shrubs of the acid-loving heath household, together with showy pink rhododendrons and huckleberries.
One other good place close by to discover pygmy forests – particularly with younger kids – is in Van Damme State Park. Right here additionally a self-guided tour brochure supplies interpretation alongside a brief path.Maybe the oddest factor concerning the pygmy forest is that it’s a climax group. On the terraces, the method of ecological succession – the gradual substitute of 1 plant group by one other – proceeds from grassland to pine forest to pygmy forest. However it ends there – with the pygmies. No different plant group will take its place so long as situations keep as they’re, the ecological staircase will bear its forests of bonsai bushes all through time.